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   2021| October-December  | Volume 12 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 20, 2021

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History of the Tamil Nadu Government Dental College and Hospital-Part 1 - “The birth of the glorious institution”
KS Gamal Abdul Nasser
October-December 2021, 12(4):181-185
  2,129 214 -
Role of silver diamine fluoride in caries prevention: A narrative review
Shivani Nagnath Bhadule, Ritesh Kalaskar
October-December 2021, 12(4):210-215
Dental caries is one of the most common diseases affecting people across the globe. Unlike other infectious diseases, dental caries is not a self-limiting disorder. Preventive outlook to avoid tooth decay is hence very essential. Fortunately, there has been a rapid shift from surgical model, which emphasizes on the restorative aspect to the medical model that majorly focuses on disease prevention. The use of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has recently been in limelight due to its ability to prevent as well as arrest dental caries. The purpose of this review is to compile and procure all related data regarding SDF, along with the inclusion of its various recent advancements and its efficiency in the current pandemic situation. The article further includes reviews from various clinical trials performed in the past as well as in recent times, regarding the efficacy of SDF when compared to other caries preventive agents.
  1,871 212 -
Oral health status of hearing and speech-impaired schoolchildren in Erode district, Tamil Nadu – A cross-sectional study
S Kalaivani, Girish R Shavi, Shankar Shanmugam, Ranganath Sanga, Lalithambigai Gunasekaran, C Rahila
October-December 2021, 12(4):198-203
Background: Children with hearing and speech impairment are one of the important groups deprived of good oral health due to communication barriers. The chance of acquiring minimal information can significantly affect their personal as well as oral health. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status among hearing and speech-impaired children in Erode. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among hearing and speech-impaired children aged 7–14 years attending special schools at Erode, Tamil Nadu. A structured questionnaire written in vernacular language (Tamil) was used to obtain information on demographic details and oral hygiene practices. Then, oral examination was carried out and findings were recorded in the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form for Children, 2013. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 75 children were examined including 46 males (61%) and 29 females (39%). The common dental diseases found in the children were dental caries (65%) and gingival bleeding (47%). Most of the children (76%) required prompt treatment. Intervention urgency is higher among those children who have not visited a dentist before. Conclusion: The present study population has extensive dental treatment needs owing to communication difficulties and underutilization of dental care. The dental professionals along with the school authorities and voluntary agencies should reorganize the preventive as well as curative dental services so as to benefit the hearing and speech-impaired children.
  1,911 169 2
Digital occlusal analysis of bite force distribution in partially edentulous patients before and after prosthetic rehabilitation: An in vivo study
Liza Rahman, P Roshan Kumar, Natarajan Kalavathy, Mitha Shetty, Archana K Sanketh, M Roopa
October-December 2021, 12(4):204-209
Background: The measurement of bite force can provide useful data for the evaluation of jaw muscle function and activity. Technological advances in signal detection and processing have improved the quality of the information extracted from bite force measurements. Aim: The current study aimed to evaluate the percentage of bite force distribution before rehabilitating in partially edentulous patients rehabilitated with removable partial dentures (RPDs) and fixed partial dentures (FPDs) and change in the force after equilibration. Materials and Methods: 15 patients with partially edentulous ridges (Kennedy class III) along with missing mandibular first molars who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected. Bite force distribution was evaluated with an intraoral sensor and Tek-scan equipment preoperatively, postoperatively after the fabrication of removable prosthesis, after the fabrication of fixed prosthesis and after equilibration. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using student paired t-test and ANOVA. Results: The net bite force distribution in the edentulous sextant preoperatively was 36.32 ± 5.98, postreplacement of the tooth with a removable replacement as 42.56 ± 3.37 and fixed replacement was 46.96 ± 2.86. On the contralateral sextant, the bite force distribution measured preoperatively was 63.68 ± 5.98, after a removable prosthesis was 57.44 ± 3.37, after FPD was 53.04 ± 2.86, and post equilibration was 51.15 ± 1.73. Conclusion: The bite force distribution produced by a FPD was more evenly distributed than the force produced by a RPD. The findings of the current study prove the fact that the equalization of bite force distributions is better in case of fixed prosthesis replacement.
  1,638 157 -
A cross-sectional study on the assessment of the complexity of removable dental prosthesis at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria
Julie Omole Omo, Joan Emien Enabulele
October-December 2021, 12(4):186-191
Background: Oral rehabilitation using removable dental prosthesis for patients with maxillofacial defects and missing teeth could pose a challenge while trying to achieve prosthetic treatment goals. It is important therefore to determine how complex the case is before proceeding with treatment. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the complexity of removable dental prosthesis at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria using the Restorative Index of Treatment Need (RIOTN) System. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of patients who sought for removable prostheses. Data were collated by means of an interviewer-administered question which collated data on biodemographic characteristics of the participant, indication for removable prosthesis, tooth to be replaced with removable prosthesis. Following a clinical examination, the RIOTN System was applied to assess the complexity of the treatment needed. Results: Ninety-eight adult patients with age ranging from 18 years to 90 years with a mean age of 45.17 ± 18.06 years participated in the study. Partial dentures were the most prevalent prostheses provided (91.8%). The most prevalent complexity grade recorded was Grade I (84.7%). There was a statistically significant association between complexity and Kennedy's class of saddle (P < 0.0001) as well as the type of support for the removable prosthesis (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The pattern of the complexity of treatment using removable dental prostheses was dependent on the type of prosthesis, teeth replaced, support, and saddle.
  1,543 165 -
Comparative evaluation of esthetic improvement of resin infiltration and resin infiltration with double infiltrant application on nonpitted fluorosis stains: A six months prospective longitudinal study
Ishika Garg
October-December 2021, 12(4):192-197
Background: Resin infiltration (RI) is a new noninvasive treatment modality that has gained increasing popularity in recent years for the treatment of dental fluorosis stains. Aim: The present study evaluated and compared the esthetic improvement (EI) of RI and RI with a double infiltrant application (2RI) on mild to moderate nonpitted fluorosis stains for a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients in the age range of 6–12 years with unesthetic appearance of upper anterior teeth due to nonpitted fluorosis stains were randomly selected and divided into two groups: (i) RI group-intervention with RI (ii) 2RI group-intervention with 2RI. Standardized photographs were taken preoperatively, immediate postoperatively and after 1, 3, and 6 months' time interval postoperatively to assess for EI and changes in surface opacities/stains (SC) using a visual assessment scale (VAS). Results: Binary comparison showed statistically insignificant difference (P > 0.05) for both the evaluation parameters, EI and SC, between RI and 2RI at all the follow-up intervals. Intra-group comparisons showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01) for the VAS values of EI and SC between the follow-up time intervals for both the groups with the highest values at 6 months' time interval. Conclusion: For EI parameter, nearly equivalent clinical success was observed in RI and 2RI groups. For SC parameter, the best results were obtained in 2RI treatment group. RI is a promising procedure with remarkable clinical success for esthetic management of mild to moderate nonpitted fluorosis stains.
  1,447 173 -
Oral manifestations of white blood cell dyscrasias with emphasis on their management
Amritha James, Sahanaz Praveen Ahmed, Preethi Arunachalam, Ramya Mahalingam, Vaddadi Krishna Mohan
October-December 2021, 12(4):222-226
White blood cell (WBC) dyscrasias refer to a group of disorders that affect the WBCs or their precursors. Oral manifestations are often the first identifiable signs of such disorders. A clear knowledge about these manifestations is necessary for both the dentist and the general physicians to initiate treatment at the earliest which could prove as a matter of life or death for the patient in certain malignancies. There is no comprehensive review on the oral manifestations of WBC dyscrasias till date. Hence, the aim of this review is to present the oral manifestations of the most commonly encountered WBC dyscrasias and their treatment modalities with an emphasis on dental management.
  1,429 152 -
Dental aerosol: An insight
B Srishti Raj, Kharidhi Laxman Vandana
October-December 2021, 12(4):216-221
Aerosols are produced during dental procedures. An airborne route has long been said to be involved in transmission of infections. The recent COVID-19 has also been considered to spread by respiratory droplets or by the contact of contaminated surfaces. The nature of the dental practice hence poses threat to dentists, dental team, and patients owing to the accompanied aerosol-generating procedures. A thorough knowledge about the dental aerosol originated from various dental procedure needs to be present for suitable prevention of infectious hazards like the COVID-19. Hence, this review aims to throw light on literature related to mechanism and source of production, composition, microbial load, and potential diseases transmitted by dental aerosol.
  1,064 103 -