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   2016| January-March  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 16, 2016

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Bioactive glass: A potential next generation biomaterial
Srishti Sarin, Amit Rekhi
January-March 2016, 7(1):27-32
Historically the function of biomaterials has been to replace diseased or damaged tissues. The first generation biomaterials were selected to be as bio-inert as possible and thereby minimize formation of scar tissue at the interface with host tissues. Bioactive glasses (BAGs) were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative; the second generation, interfacial bonding of an implant with host tissues. Tissue regeneration and repair using the gene activation properties of Bioglass® provide a third generation of biomaterials. This article reviews the history of the development of BAGs, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®, that has been in clinical use since 1985. A bioactive ceramic is a ceramic that generate a positive reaction in the biological environment of the implants and/or chemical reaction that modify the material in a certain thickness under the surface.
  6,754 1,015 6
Maxillary first molar with five canals
Prem Anand, Sekar Mahalaxmi
January-March 2016, 7(1):45-47
Maxillary first molar usually has three roots namely, mesiobuccal, distobuccal, and palatal. The incidence of four canals in maxillary first molar ranges from 50.4% to 95%, the fifth canal is 2.25%, and few authors have reported cases with six and seven canals too. With this varying number of canals and canal configurations, endodontic treatment of the maxillary first molars is always a challenge. This clinical article describes a case report of a maxillary first molar with the unusual anatomy of five root canals and its endodontic management.
  7,102 419 -
Rehabilitation of ocular defects: Custom made and modified stock eye prostheses
Amaey A Parekh, Shailesh Bhalerao
January-March 2016, 7(1):41-44
Physical defects that compromise appearance or function prevent an individual from leading a normal life. The loss of eye is a visible facial defect and often undermines the patient's confidence. Prosthetic rehabilitation of ocular defect should be done as soon as possible for physical as well as psychological healing. This paper describes two case reports detailing alternative procedures for prosthetic rehabilitation of ocular defects. The article also discusses the most economical and effective esthetic treatment available for ocular defects as applicable in the Indian scenario. It describes the fabrication of a custom ocular prosthesis and modified stock ocular prosthesis and the differences in methods of fabrication and outcomes. In addition, use of Leudde's exopthalmometer for easier measurements is explained.
  3,718 311 1
Investigation of the magnification of digital panoramic radiographs in different regions of the jaws
Mehrdad Abdinian, Fatemeh Soheilipour, Rahman Nazeri, Sajad Ghorbanizadeh
January-March 2016, 7(1):10-16
Introduction: Distortion and geometric changes are major problems in panoramic radiography. As the digital panoramic machines are diverse and widely used, providing precise dimensions in each structure in the radiographs can improve their application. The aim of this study was to examine the horizontal and vertical magnification of digital panoramic radiographs in different areas of the jaws. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 10 dry human skulls were marked by gutta-percha in different horizontal and vertical dental areas. The radiographs were then prepared from each skull in the optimum situation recommended by the manufacturer in two digital panoramic machines. (Planmeca Promax Scara 3 and Instrumentarium-OP200). Measurements of the skulls and radiographs were independently carried out by two observers, and the data were analyzed by SPSS 18 software. Horizontal and vertical magnifications were computed in each region, and the results were analyzed by t-test and interclass correlation coefficient (α = 0.05). Results: The mean magnifications of both vertical and horizontal dimensions in different regions were different in both machines. The vertical and horizontal dimensions of Planmeca Promax Scara 3 and vertical dimensions of Instrumentarium-OP200 were clinically reliable and close to real dimensions. The horizontal dimensions of Instrumentarium-OP200 were much different from real dimensions. (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The mean magnifications of both vertical and horizontal dimensions were different in various regions of the jaws. Measurements in vertical dimensions were more reliable than horizontal ones.
  3,054 377 4
Three-dimensional localisation of impacted teeth with cone-beam computed tomography: A case series
Sarabjeet Singh Sandhu, Taruna Puri, Rishabh Kapila, Navreet Sandhu
January-March 2016, 7(1):36-40
Since its introduction into dentistry in 1998, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has become an increasingly important source of three-dimensional volumetric data in clinical orthodontics. CBCT should be used only in specific cases in which conventional radiography cannot supply satisfactory diagnostic information; these include patients with cleft palate, assessment of position of unerupted tooth, supernumerary teeth, identification of root resorption, and for planning of orthognathic surgery. Two-dimensional diagnostic imaging, such as traditional radiographs, cephalometric tracings, photographs, and video imaging have been routinely used as orthodontic diagnostic records since many years. The limitations of these imaging modalities include geometric distortion, magnification, superimposition of structures, projective displacements, rotational errors, and linear projective transformation. These errors can be easily overcome by the CBCT. The purpose of this is to highlight the significance of CBCT in diagnosis and treatment planning in the orthodontics.
  3,038 332 1
A survey of the prosthetic status and post treatment satisfaction of patients among a South Indian population
Archana K Sanketh, J Sridevi, N Kalavathy, Mitha M Shetty, Roshan Kumar, TP Pavan
January-March 2016, 7(1):17-22
Aims: Assessment of prosthetic treatment needs is essential to determine oral health care needs in a systematic manner and to gather the information required to bring about change beneficial to the oral health of the population. Systematic assessment of treatment needs and patient satisfaction ensures that the available resources are optimally utilized to improve the oral health of the population. The objective of this survey was to assess the prosthetic status of patients visiting the Department of Prosthodontics of DAPMRV Dental College, Bengaluru, which was followed by the assessment of patient satisfaction 3 months after treatment. Furthermore, the influence of patient's gender, their mental attitude, and the type of prosthesis given on patient satisfaction was evaluated. Methods: A short interview was carried out with the selected patients to collect preliminary data. The socioeconomic status was recorded, following which an intra-oral examination was carried out to assess the prosthetic status and the type of prosthesis required by the patient. Patients were then given a questionnaire before the commencement of treatment to assess their mental attitude. The treatment decided on was completed for each patient. Patients' satisfaction with the treatment was assessed after 3 months using a questionnaire. Subsequent to the collection of data from the questionnaires, statistical analysis using the Chi-square test at a significance level of P < 0.05 was done to evaluate relationship between age, personality, mental attitude, and prosthetic treatment needs. Patient satisfaction was also assessed. Results: Statistically significant results were obtained on correlating the age and the treatment required, patients' mental attitude and the various treatment options. The relationship between the patients' gender, socioeconomic status, and mental attitude with their satisfaction was found to be noteworthy. Conclusion: The highest prosthetic treatment need was for complete dentures in both genders. Higher satisfaction levels were noted in individuals belonging to higher socioeconomic status and in males. No particular treatment modality had significantly higher or lower satisfaction scores.
  2,898 356 3
Oil pulling therapy in dental practice: A short review
Sidhant Pathak
January-March 2016, 7(1):33-35
Preventive medicine is very famous nowadays. In spite of progress in medical field ayurvedic medicine for preventing oral diseases cannot be ignored. Oil pulling in which oil is swished in the mouth is known to cure various oral and systemic ailments. This article aims at highlighting the age old practice to prevent not only oral diseases but also systemic diseases associated with oral diseases.
  2,918 300 1
Ozone as healing touch in a case of benign migratory glossitis
Tarun Kumar, Neha Arora, Ajaypal Singh Kataria, Dheeraj Sharma
January-March 2016, 7(1):48-50
Benign migratory glossitis also known as the geographical tongue is a recurrent condition of unknown etiology characterized by loss of epithelium particularly of the filiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Clinically the appearance is of multifocal, circinate, irregular erythematous patches bounded by slightly elevated, white colored keratotic bands. The condition is very common in adults and older age groups. The present article describes a rare case of geographic tongue in a 2.5-year-old child.
  2,548 189 1
Attitude and awareness towards periodontal health among health care and non-health care professionals
Surekha Rathod, Farooque Khan, Trupti Sarda
January-March 2016, 7(1):23-26
Background and Aim: The behavior of oral health care providers and their attitudes toward their own health refl ect their understanding of the importance of preventive dental procedure and improving the oral health of patients. The attitude toward oral health determines the health status of the oral cavity. A cross-sectional study conducted among the health care professionals and non-health care professionals to assess attitude and awareness towards periodontal health. Materials and Methods: The data pertaining to their knowledge, attitude, and practice about oral health was gathered using a self-administered questionnaire containing 13 questions which were a multiple options questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed among 798 subjects within the age range of 17-25 years (402 were distributed among health care professionals and among 398 non-health care professionals). Results: Health care professionals visited their dentist regularly, had less dental problems, used proper tooth-brushing technique and other interdental aids, had a good lifestyle as compared to non-health care professionals. Conclusion: So the basic knowledge about dentistry should be incorporated in the syllabus.
  1,991 272 1
Training-related maxillofacial injuries in Cameroon military
Ashu Michael Agbor, Alex Frank Nossi, Clement Chinedu Azodo, Cyrus Landry Kamga, Salomon Zing
January-March 2016, 7(1):6-9
Background: Training-related injuries constitute a major health problem among military worldwide. The objective of the study was to assess military training-related maxillofacial injuries in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 participants aged 19–60 years in Koutaba training camp in the Western region (Noun division) between May and July 2014. Data were collected using both clinical examination and questionnaires. Results: Data revealed a high risk of military training-related maxillofacial injuries. Males and young participants were the most implicated population. The main causes of the maxillofacial injuries were parachuting followed by high jump and road traffic accidents. Most of those maxillofacial injuries were not handled at the training camp because of the absence of dental service. The most common maxillofacial injuries were lacerations (36.7%), followed by the fracture of the teeth (21.7%) and fracture of the lower jaw (20.0%). The majority (76.0%) of the injured respondents felt personal disturbances; mostly for those with maxillofacial injuries from pain and emotional distress. In addition, they said it impaired esthetics, impaired mastication, and disturb speech to those with missing teeth. Conclusion: Overall training.-related injuries and training.-related maxillofacial injuries constitute a major health problem in military service in Cameroon that needs a success.-oriented preventive strategy.
  1,542 175 -
Influence of rotation around axial axis and rotation and tilt around sagittal axis on measurements in panoramic radiographic images
Mehrdad Abdinian, Vida Nikouei, Mahdieh Sadat Khatami Bidgoli, Reyhaneh Faghihian, Sajjad Ghorbanizadeh
January-March 2016, 7(1):1-5
Introduction: Patient's head should be adjusted carefully or else dimensions in panoramic radiograph are not accurate. This study evaluated the effect of rotation around axial and sagittal axis on magnification in each area of the jaws. Materials and Methods: Seven human skulls were marked horizontally and vertically. Each skull was imaged in the ideal and rotated positions. Rotations were 1–2, 2–4, and 4–6° around axial axis and same degrees of rotations and tilts was applied to left around sagittal axis. Results: Maxillary and mandibular vertical dimensions were both affected significantly by the extension and flexion of the skull. Changes of horizontal dimensions were significant only in anterior maxilla in downward rotation and in anterior mandible in upward rotation (P ≤ 0.05). Horizontal dimensions were the most affected dimensions by rotation and tilt. Left side dimensions were affected more than right side. Tilts more than 4 degrees and rotations more than 2° around sagittal axis lead to significant differences in horizontal dimensions (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Rotation around axial and sagittal axis and tilt around sagittal axis up to 6° cause significant dimensional changes in some areas of the jaws, but these changes are clinically negligible.
  1,415 162 -