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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2022
Volume 13 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 85-137

Online since Friday, September 9, 2022

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COVID-19 vaccination status of senior dentistry students and their views on the changing educational processes in Turkey: A survey study p. 85
Hilal Ozbey, Ceylan Cagil Ertugrul
Background: COVID-19 has spread rapidly all over the world and has become a global concern. After March 16, 2020, dental education in Turkey completely switched to online education. Aim: This survey aimed to evaluate the opinion of students about online education. In addition, it aimed to determine the COVID-19 vaccine status of the students and whether they contracted the disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with the use of a web-based survey and 281 senior intern dentistry students from different universities in Turkey participated in the survey. The survey consisted of questions created to understand the view of the students on online education during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, there were questions about the COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 vaccine experiences of the students. Descriptive analyses were done and differences between the gender was analyzed with Mann–Whitney U-test at a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: In the study, 68.32% of the students thought COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected theoretical education and 83.27% of them thought COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected practical education. Of the surveyed students, 28.82% of them had COVID-19 infection. The percentage of students who had at least 1 dose of vaccine was 98.58%. Conclusions: The study revealed the unsatisfactory experience of students with the newly introduced online education during COVID-19 pandemic. It is gratifying to notice the higher rate of vaccination among students.
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Trends and patterns of head-and-neck cancer among a cohort of bidi smokers: A clinical study p. 91
Juhi Gupta, Md Asadullah, Sarah Mariam, Vipul Jain, Pradhuman Verma, Neha Agarwal
Background: In India, bidi smoking is prevalent among people of low socioeconomic status as it is cheaper than a cigarette. Aim: The aim of the current study was to analyze the pattern of distribution of oral and oropharyngeal cancer in bidi smokers in the Western Uttar Pradesh population. Materials and Methods: This unicentric cross-sectional study was conducted on patients having an exclusive habit of bidi smoking in the tertiary health care center from March 2019 to February 2022. Five hundred and eighty-five patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal or oral cancer, who were willing to share information related to the bidi smoking habit were enrolled. A Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: The base of the tongue was found to be the most common site of oral cancer. It was our observation that 61.75% of men had cancer in the oropharynx, and about 34.8% had cancer in the oral cavity. Conclusion: Bidi smoke is dangerous and contains many carcinogenic agents. Bidi smokers have an increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer as compared to oral cancer.
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Gauging the upshot of liquid medicaments on surface roughness and stability of color in pit and fissure sealant – In vitro study p. 96
CH Chandana Krishna Shree, GK Pallavi Urs, HR Pooja, Andrea Natalia Mascarenhas, Anisha Jenny, Priya Nagar
Background: With esthetics in demand among pediatric patients, maintenance, color stability and surface roughness has become a vital tool to gauge the success of dental restorations. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of liquid medicaments on color stability and surface roughness of three different pit and fissure sealants. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven premolars indicated for orthodontic extraction were selected and grouped based on sealants applied (n = 9) into three groups, namely PF Seal (PF), Conseal F (C), and Helioseal (H), which were subdivided into antibiotic, analgesic, and multivitamin based on medicament (n = 3). Selected sealant was placed on teeth, respectively, and immediate color stability and surface roughness (Ra) were gauged using Adobe Photoshop software and profilometer, respectively. Sealant-placed teeth were subjected to liquid formulations for 2 min for every 8 h duration. On 7th and 14th day, the color stability and Ra values were re-assessed. The analysis of outcomes was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows Version 22.0 Released 2013. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Results: Intergroup analysis showed that the color stability was better with Conseal F compared to PF seal and Helioseal F and the mean Ra values showed a significant increase from baseline to 14th-day measurement. Intragroup analysis revealed the highest surface roughness with antibiotic group compared to other medicaments. Conclusion: The prolonged use of liquid drug formulations such as analgesics, antibiotics, and multivitamins has shown to have a negative effect on the stability of color and surface roughness of the sealants.
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Effects of platelet-rich fibrin in the surgical extraction of mandibular third molar: A systematic review and meta-analysis p. 101
A F M Shakilur Rahman
Background: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has a wide variety of applications in the field of oral surgery due to its biological potential to accelerate the wound-healing process and tissue regeneration. Aim: The objective of this review was to find out whether the role of PRF had been reported to be efficient in the surgical extraction of mandibular third molar (M3). Methods: An electronic search of the English-language literature in the PubMed (Medline) database was performed for the period from January 2015 to September 2021. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the impact of PRF application were included in this review. According to the Cochrane Collaboration's standards, the reviewer assessed the risk of bias. Review Manager (version 5.4) Windows software was used for the meta-analysis. Results: A total of 39 papers were found in the computerized search, with 13 RCTs meeting the qualitative analysis requirements and 10 trials included in the meta-analysis. The results of a meta-analysis for M3 surgery showed that PRF reduces the incidence of alveolar osteitis (AO) (P = 0.005) and pain on the first (P = 0.05), third (P = 0.002), fourth (P = 0.01), and seventh (P = 0.0003) postoperative days. The meta-analysis also revealed that there was no substantial improvement (P = 0.44) in soft tissue healing with the application of PRF following M3 surgery. Conclusions: The application of PRF after M3 extraction decreased the incidence of AO and postextraction pain.
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The tooth eruption and its abnormalities - A narrative review p. 109
KV Sai Charan, R Sangeetha, N Santana, G Hema Priya, M Kumari, P Murali, VS Gayathri
Background: The process of tooth eruption is influenced by local, systemic, and genetic factors. Any disturbances in these factors might lead to abnormalities in the eruption of the tooth. Aim: The aim of this narrative review is to classify and discuss the eruption and its abnormality in detail. Methods: This narrative review was performed through an electronic search of data for the articles dealing with eruption, theories of eruption, and eruption abnormalities from the following databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Medknow, WebMD, and IndMed. Results: Based on our search, we were able to retrieve the information from 15 articles. Conclusion: A mastered eye in evaluating the radiographs, the practitioner's acquaintance with associated abnormalities, and the patient's clear history including familial and traumatic history might pave the way in arriving at an approximate diagnosis.
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Socket preservation techniques: An overview with literature review p. 115
Elsie Sunitha Ebenezer, Jananni Muthu, Pratebha Balu, R Saravana Kumar
Background: Alveolar bone undergoes residual ridge resorption after tooth extraction and eventually results in inadequate soft tissue and alveolus for dental implant rehabilitation. Therefore, to overcome this, socket preservation is performed immediately after tooth extraction to maximize bone formation within the socket. Aim: This review is aimed to give a brief overview of rationale, indications, surgical techniques, decision tree, and recent literature evidence regarding different techniques of socket preservation. Methods: An electronic search was performed in databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar with the key words socket preservation, particulate bone grafts, membranes, and platelet-rich fibrin. The articles published from August 2008 to February 2022 were included for the search. Results: A total of 18 articles were considered for the review which included 8 meta-analysis, 7 systematic review, and 3 randomized control trial. The outcome parameters such as clinical, radiographical, and histomorphometrical ridge dimensions were analyzed. Conclusion: Socket preservation is one of the effective treatment options to prevent bone resorption following an atraumatic extraction with the use of appropriate biomaterials and membranes. The reliability and power of evidence is strong for the combined technique of using bone graft and membrane.
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Are smokeless tobacco products less harmful than smoking tobacco products?: A Review p. 121
Monika Srivastav, Thayalan Dinesh Kumar, Elizabeth C Dony
Background: The common belief amongst the consumers of smokeless tobacco products is Smokeless Tobacco Products (STPs) are not hazardous as smoking tobacco. Any form of tobacco consumed is addictive and the nicotine absorbed from these products is manifold higher than the nicotine produced and delivered from a cigarette. Aim: The aim of this narrative review is to consolidate and summarize the data from various studies to find out whether smokeless tobacco products are less harmful than smoking tobacco products or vice-versa. Method: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using various databases like EBSCO, Google scholar, Pubmed, Embase from 1957 to 2021. The keywords used for search was 'smokeless tobacco products', 'bacterial population AND smokeless tobacco products', 'water content, pH in STP'. Result: In total, 52 articles were selected to analyze the parameters, which proved increasing carcinogenicity in smokeless tobacco products. Various parameters were analyzed which include pH, water content, manufacturing procedure of STP and microbial population in smokeless tobacco products. Conclusion: The literature search suggests that the microbial population in smokeless tobacco products acts as a cascading series of events in carcinogenesis and other opportunistic infections and concludes that smokeless tobacco products are equally harmful as smoking tobacco products.
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Elucidating the pathogenicity, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of COVID-19: Part I p. 127
Monisha Parshotam Khatri, Sekar Mahalaxmi
Background: From the beginning of 2020, much and more has been spoken about the coronavirus and coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The concepts in terms of the infection, its transmission, the treatment, and its prevention are ever changing as well as unclear. Aim: The Part I of this review article strived to provide a clear picture on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19. Methods: An electronic search was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar database with the keywords “Corona Virus, COVID 19, World Health Organization, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), SARS-CoV-2, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Treatment, Plasma Convalescent Therapy, Immune system” from January 2017 to December 2021. Results: A total of 65 articles were included in the current review and analyzed to simplify the complicated information available in the literature. Conclusion: COVID-19 as said to originate from bats and transmitted through intermediatory hosts like pangolins, can be diagnosed symptomatically and with tests such as blood investigation, reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, computed tomography scan, saliva, or gingival crevicular fluid. Various treatment options include use of drugs such as antivirals, antimalarial, immune enhancers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, anticoagulant therapy, and antibodies.
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Oral management of poorly understood Papillon–Lefèvre syndrome – A case report p. 134
Deepak Sharma, Nancy Changra, Priyanka Kharbanda, Shanta Negi, Ankit Mahajan, Suresh Kumar Sachdeva
Rationale: Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare genodermatosis with autosomal-recessive genetic inheritanceand has features mainly palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and rapidly progressing severe periodontitis leading to early loss of deciduous and permanent dentition. Patient Concerns: The patient in the presented report was concerned with loose teeth, gingival bleeding and oral malodour and wanted to get missing teeth replaced. Diagnosis: The diagnosis was made based on medical history, clinical and radiological findings. Interventions: Periodontal phase I therapy included extraction of hopeless teeth, manual and ultrasonic scaling, mechanical and chemical plaque control and periodic maintenance. Missing teeth were restored by removable and fixed prosthesis. Dermatological lesions were conservatively managed. Outcomes: A comprehensive treatment stabilised periodontal disease of the patient and prosthetic rehabilitation improved oral health related quality of life of PLS patient. Lessons: PLS patients require an early diagnosis and a team approach for dermatological, periodontal complications and prosthetic rehabilitation.
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