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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2022
Volume 13 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 139-189

Online since Thursday, December 15, 2022

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Retrospective evaluation of geriatric patients applying to a dentistry faculty during the COVID-19 pandemic p. 139
Derya Icoz, Rıdvan Karakurt, Faruk Akgünlü
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_131_22  
Background: COVID-19 has had a significant impact on dental procedures, as dentistry is one of the areas at the highest risk for the transmission of COVID-19. Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the application density of geriatric patients during the pandemic and to investigate the most common reasons for referral to a dentistry faculty. Materials and Methods: For the study, the 1 year was divided into four equal periods of 3 months, and the number of patients examined in these periods; the age and gender information of the patients, their systemic conditions, and the primary reasons for admission were recorded from the patient files. Results: The total number of geriatric patients who were examined during this process was determined as 848. According to the periods, the number of patients who were examined was the lowest in the 1st period (53 [6.3%]) and the highest in the 4th period (349 [41.2%]). For all four periods, it was determined that the most common reason for the application was prosthetic reasons (39.4%), the most common comorbid disease was hypertension (37.7%), and cancer patients applied statistically significantly less in the 1st period (P = 0.040). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the number of dental patients has gradually increased for the 1st year of COVID-19 cases. Although there was no statistical difference between the periods in terms of pain, alveolitis, need for restoration due to fracture, trauma, etc., COVID-19 had significant effects on dental applications, as in many areas.
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Dental health status in Chennai corporation schools – An evaluative and comparative study p. 144
KS Gamal Abdul Nasser, P Rupkumar, Madhu Narayan
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_128_22  
Background: Schools in Chennai are run publicly by the government or run privately, some with financial aid from the government in Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India. There are various systems of education – CBSE, Anglo Indian Board, ICSE Board, NIOS Board, Matriculation, Montessori, and State Board. From these, a massive study was conducted among 100,620 corporation school (state-run) students in the district of Chennai to find the prevalence of various dental diseases among them. Aim: To evaluate and compare the prevalence of various dental diseases among the corporation school children from different zones of Chennai city. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out for a period of about 15 months. It involved diagnosis, therapeutics, and referral to the state-run dental hospital for further follow-up. The district of Chennai was divided into ten zones. The school students, zone-wise, were screened, diagnosed and the required treatments were done at the venue or were referred to the higher center for further examination or treatment. The data collected were divided into zone-wise categories on the basis of disease occurrence and treatment/referral done and were tabulated. Results: The result obtained was that an astounding 74.36% of corporation school students were afflicted with some form of dental disease. Conclusion: Various associated factors such as lower socioeconomic status of the parents, educational background of the parents, dental education, and awareness among the school students could play major roles in the status of dental health among the corporation school children.
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Assessment of the relative efficacy of fluoridated toothpaste with and without eggshell-derived calcium oxide in the prevention of primary tooth enamel demineralization: An ex vivo study p. 151
RV Remi, Prathibha Rani Shankarappa, A Anantharaj, P Praveen, R Sudhir
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_101_22  
Background: During the cariogenic challenges, the anticaries action of fluoride is limited by the bioavailability of calcium and phosphate in saliva. This mandates the use of additional extrinsic sources of calcium and phosphate to enhance the anticaries potential of fluoride. Aim: This study aimed to assess and compare the efficacy of fluoridated toothpaste with and without eggshell-derived calcium oxide in the prevention of primary tooth enamel demineralization. Materials and Methods: Sixty samples were obtained from 15 extracted primary second molars and allocated to one of four groups: Group A for baseline Vickers hardness testing, Group B was subjected to demineralization only, Group C was treated with fluoridated toothpaste solution, and Group D was treated with fluoridated toothpaste and chicken eggshell powder solution. Surface microhardness and the amount of calcium that was leached into the demineralizing solutions of groups B, C, and D were statistically assessed after 7 days of pH cycling. Results: The mean Vickers hardness values of groups A, B, C, and D were 402.68, 366.28, 392.79, and 395.27, respectively. The mean calcium concentration released into demineralizing solution of groups B, C, and D were 35.52, 29.12, and 27.12, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between the fluoridated toothpaste with and without eggshell powder. Conclusion: Both fluoridated toothpaste with and without eggshell-derived calcium oxide were equally effective in the prevention of primary tooth enamel demineralization.
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Assessment of adult oral health literacy among patients visiting Government dental college, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh: A cross-sectional study p. 157
Deepak Gurung, Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj, Shailee Fotedar, Arun Singh Thakur
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_111_22  
Background: The major role of oral health literacy (OHL) lies in the utilization of health services as low literacy leads to reduced participation and engagement in preventive health programs. Aim: This study aimed to assess the adult OHL among patients visiting the Tertiary care institute in north India. Materials and Methods: The source of data for this descriptive qualitative study was patient visiting the outpatient department. Data collection procedure included information obtained from the subject recorded on a structured pro forma using OHL-Adults Questionnaire. Mann–Whitney U test, Kruskal–Wallis test with post hoc Bonferroni test, and Spearman's rho correlation were applied. Multiple logistic regressions were used and the dependent variable (OHL) was regressed for predicted independent variables. Parameter estimate of inadequate and marginal OHL for various predictor variables was regressed considering the adequate OHL as standard reference. Results: The inadequate literacy score was statistically significant for age, educational qualification, and number of times of visit to dentist in lifetime in the final regression model. The marginal score was significant for age, educational qualification, and frequency of visit to dentist in the final regression model. Conclusion: Total dental visit in lifetime is an important indicator for better OHL in this study. Orientation of oral health promotion programs requires due importance for both the marginal and inadequate OHL.
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Prevalence of pulp stones using digital panoramic radiograph: A preliminary retrospective study p. 163
Jawahar Indrapriyadharshini, Ayyapan Narendira Sharma, Ramanathan Vineeth, Mouttoukichenin Surenthar, Satyanarayanan Mohanapriya, Subramanian Vasudevan Srinivasan
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_108_22  
Background: Isolated calcified masses found in the pulpal space of teeth are called pulp stones (PS). Different populations demonstrate a varied prevalence of PS. Aim: The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the prevalence of PS in the Pondicherry population, along with its relationships with gender, age, tooth type, and location using digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: One hundred good-quality digital panoramic radiographs of healthy individuals between 18 and 70 years were selected from the records of the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. PS were recognized as well-defined dense radiopaque masses in the intrapulpal space. Two examiners independently analyzed the radiographs for the presence of PS. Results: Out of 100 radiographs, PS were found in 54 radiographs. Males showed a higher incidence (57.4%) than females (42.6%). Furthermore, patients between 20 and 35 years showed a greater prevalence (64.81%) and the incidence was higher in the maxillary arch (70%) than the mandibular arch (30%) with the right side being more frequent. In addition, first molars showed a greater overall prevalence. Conclusion: It was found that the prevalence of PS was 54%. Digital panoramic radiographs can be used as a preliminary investigative technique for the identification of PS.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practice about painless local anesthesia injection techniques among pediatric dentists: An online cross-sectional survey p. 168
Sejal Jain, Seema Bargale, Bhavna Dave, Pratik B Kariya, Yash Shah, Shweta Dharmatti
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_130_22  
Background: Various technologies and methods have been invented involving local anesthesia delivery with minimal child patient discomfort and reduced injection pain. These technologies include vibrotactile devices, computer-controlled local anesthesia delivery system (CCLADS), jet injectors, and nanotechnology. Aim: The aim of the current study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice about painless local anesthesia injection technique among pediatric dentists in India. Materials and Methods: This study was an online cross-sectional survey consisting of 20 formulated questions about the various painless local anesthesia injection techniques. A total of 318 pediatric dentists participated in this online survey across India. The collected data were subjected to descriptive and Chi-square analysis. Results: Out of 318 responses received, 95% of pediatric dentists agreed that pain management is one of the most important aspects of child patient care. CCLADS and vibrotactile devices are among the most used painless injection techniques with 89.6% and 84.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The pediatric dentists were found to have good knowledge about the various painless injection techniques; however, these techniques were not adopted by many of them. There is a need to implement such painless techniques in order to reduce pediatric patient discomfort.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

A comprehensive look at magnetic resonance imaging: A review p. 174
Mahapatra Subharina, Hebbale Manjula, Mhapuskar Amit, Singh Simran
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_86_22  
Introduction: High-resolution pictures of soft tissue may be obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sophisticated chemical and physical data may be gathered using this spectroscopic approach, which depends on the magnetic resonance principle as its base. Aim: The purpose of this article was to provide a short overview of MRI, different contrast agents in MRI, its use in oral medicine, its contraindications, and the most recent MRI discoveries and artifacts related to MRI. Methods: An online search was conducted using databases such as PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar to locate articles that dealt with MRI, oral medicine, recent advancements, dental applications, and contrast agents. The search was limited to studies that were published before March 2022. Results: A total of 31 articles were included and analyzed for this review. Conclusion: MRI is more sensitive than other imaging modalities in the diagnosis of soft tissue in the head-and-neck area; the use of three-dimensional imaging will expand further advancements in this imaging modality.
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Elucidating the pathogenicity, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of COVID-19 – Part II p. 179
Monisha Parshotam Khatri, Sekar Mahalaxmi
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_112_22  
Introduction: After throwing light on COVID-19 infection, its transmission, available treatment options in Part I, this article has focused on various preventive measures proposed to deal with the disease. Aim: The Part II of this review article aimed to provide the different measures advocated to prevent COVID-19. Methods: An electronic search was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar databases with the keywords "Corona virus, COVID-19, World Health Organization, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS-CoV-2, Prevention, Vaccines" from January 2017 to August 2022. Results: A total of 42 articles were included in the current review. Conclusion: The theoretical evidence does advocate the use of vaccines to be good candidates, but practically, no guarantee can be given that an individual will never be infected. One needs to take personal precautions such as hand sanitizing, wearing a mask in public places, and maintaining social distancing till a permanent cure is procured.
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An overview of leprosy with its oral manifestations: A comprehensive review p. 185
Manisha Singh, Hemant Sawhney, Richa Mishra, Jayant Kumar
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_127_22  
Background: Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae which most commonly affects the skin and peripheral nerves. The other sites of leprosy include the liver, kidneys, eyes, oral mucosa, lymph nodes, bones and joints, and gonads. The oral involvement in leprosy includes the tongue, lips, hard palate, buccal mucosa, uvula, faucial pillars, and involvement of gums. Aim: The aim of this comprehensive review is to create the awareness among dental professionals about the classification, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and management, reactions of leprosy, and oral aspects of leprosy. The awareness among dental professionals will help in the early detection and treatment of leprosy patients. Methods: The comprehensive data were obtained based on the electronic data search about the classification, pathogenesis, clinical features, and oral aspects of leprosy on Google Scholar and PubMed. Results: A total of 14 articles were selected for the purpose of classification, pathogenesis, clinical features, and oral aspects of leprosy. Conclusion: The oral examination of these patients will be helpful in the early diagnosis and treatment of leprosy patients.
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