|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 17-20
Periodontal stipulation inference of industrial recruits of Bhopal city, India: A cross-sectional study
Anshika Khare, Vrinda Saxena, Manish Jain, Vijayta Sharva
Department of Public Health Dentistry, People's Dental Academy, People's University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||16-Mar-2018|
Dr. Anshika Khare
Department of Public Health Dentistry, People's Dental Academy, People's University, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Industrial rebellion made brisk tramp to provide scope in employment worldwide, and inflate standard of living. In attributable of frenzied and taxing schedule of industrial employees, adaptation of abhorrent habits such as smoking, chewing, and drinking are amplified. This exposure deteriorates general as well as oral health of natives working in industries. Aim and Objectives: This study has been conducted for periodontal stipulation inference of industrial recruits of Bhopal city, India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 448 industrial employees, to assess their periodontal status. Modified WHO-2013 oral health pro forma was used to appraise periodontal condition and related treatment necessities of industrial employees. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20, and Chi-square and analysis of variance test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of gingival bleeding was found to be 61.2%, and periodontal disease prevalence was 48.2%. Out of 182 industrial employees, 40.6% had no loss of attachment (LOA). Most of the participants, 166 (37.1%), had 4–5 mm LOA. The 6–8 mm LOA was present in 92 (20.5%) and 9–11 mm LOA was present only in 8 (1.8%) participants. Conclusion: This study conveys an implication of periodontal state and related treatment requirement of industrial recruits. It showed that periodontal health of industrial employees was below the ground of expectations. Therefore, it entails focusing on these peril groups and emphasis on those factors which contribute in pitiable periodontal health.
Keywords: Industrial employees, periodontal status, treatment requirement
|How to cite this article:|
Khare A, Saxena V, Jain M, Sharva V. Periodontal stipulation inference of industrial recruits of Bhopal city, India: A cross-sectional study. SRM J Res Dent Sci 2018;9:17-20
|How to cite this URL:|
Khare A, Saxena V, Jain M, Sharva V. Periodontal stipulation inference of industrial recruits of Bhopal city, India: A cross-sectional study. SRM J Res Dent Sci [serial online] 2018 [cited 2023 Jun 7];9:17-20. Available from: https://www.srmjrds.in/text.asp?2018/9/1/17/227767
| Introduction|| |
Industrial rebellion made brisk tramp to provide scope in employment worldwide, and inflate standard of living. In attributable of frenzied and taxing schedule of industrial employees, adaptation of abhorrent habits such as smoking, chewing, and drinking are amplified. This exposure deteriorates general as well as oral health of natives working in industries. The oral cavity also provides a route of generous diseases which perpetually influenced by occupational hazards.
Occupational injuries cause major health problems in developed, developing, and underdeveloped nations worldwide and majority of the labor force is deprived of occupational health services.
In consideration of that, workers possess the general health risk of occupational hazards. Various labor laws, schemes, and policies are undertaken by the government, and implemented by industries, but very trivial attention to oral health is being given, because of which laborers are more progressing toward hidden adverse oral effects invariably causing various health hazards which can also affect their working efficacy.
Literature also divulges the alliance between occupational exposure and higher incidence of oral diseases. It is an important perspective public health problem owing to industrialization and hence escalation of the prevalence, socioeconomical aspect, expensive treatment, and the lack of awareness.
Therefore, inimitable attribute to design this study was commencing attempt on the industrial employees to uplift their periodontal condition. It furthermore provides baseline data for deliberately forecast healthier periodontal state, in the form of promotive, curative, evaluative, and rehabilitative services.
| Materials and Methods|| |
A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 448 general engineering industry (GEI) industrial employees of Bhopal city, for the assessment of their periodontal status. Modified WHO-2013 oral health pro forma was used to appraise periodontal condition and related treatment necessities of industrial employees. To assess socioeconomic status of industrial employees, Kuppuswamy (2012) scale was used.
The mode of sampling operandi was based on census inventory of the entire industrial employees. Than the study participants selected on the basis of following inclusion and exclusion criteria:-
All the permanent industrial recruits working since last 3 years will be included in the study.
Employees reluctant to participate and repetitively absent throughout study period were excluded from the study.
After setting the inclusion and exclusion criteria, entire illustration of industrial employees was 448.
The principled sanction was obtained from the ethical committee of People's Dental Academy, Bhopal. A pilot study was accomplished along with 30 employees to ensure preferred viability with WHO-20013 pro forma.
According to age group, GEI, employees ranging in the strata of 18–35, 36–55, >56, and 36–55 years of age group was in preponderance. While according to socioeconomic status, employees were ranging in upper-middle class, lower-middle, upper-lower, and lower-middle class was in predominance. A qualified solitary investigator was calibrated regarding interpretation, understanding and application of codes and criteria in the modified WHO-2013 pro forma. A recording clerk was also trained to enter the data.
The statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20 (SPSS Pty Ltd, Chicago, IL, USA). Chi-square and analysis of variance were used to calculate oral health state and treatment rations of industrial employees. The P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
A total of 448 industrial recruits were examined, ranged in 18–65 years of strata. The majorities of the study participants were 36–55 years of age group and appear under lower-middle class of socioeconomic status [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Demographic distribution of industrial employees according to age and socioeconomic status|
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Mean number of teeth affected by gingival bleeding was 3.95 ± 4.53 and it was highest among >56 years age group and upper-middle class of socioeconomic status.
The gingival bleeding prevalence was 274 (61.2%) among industrial employees. Gingival bleeding prevalence was more 176 (39.3%) in 36–55 years of age group and lower-middle class 162 (36.2%) of socioeconomic status.
Mean number of teeth affected by shallow pocket was 2.25 ± 2.81, and it was highest among in >56 years age group and upper-lower class of socioeconomic status [Table 1].
|Table 1: Mean number of teeth affected by shallow pocket in industrial employees according to their age and socioeconomic status|
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Mean number of teeth affected by deep pocket was 0.66 ± 1.49, and it was among highest >56 years age group and lower-middle class of socioeconomic status [Table 2].
|Table 2: Mean number of teeth affected by deep pocket in industrial employees according to their age and socioeconomic status|
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Periodontal disease prevalence was 216 (48.2%), and it was higher (33.5%) in 36–55 years of age group and lower-middle class 126 (28.1%) of socioeconomic status.
Mean number of loss of attachment (LOA) 0 sextants was 1.64 ± 2.05, LOA 1 was 1.43 ± 1.54, LOA 2 was 0.35 ± 0.71, LOA 3 was 0.02 ± 0.17, and LOAX was 0.13 ± 0.36 [Table 3].
|Table 3: Distribution of loss of attachment among industrial employees according to age groups and socioeconomic status|
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Out of 448 employees, 182 (40.6%) had no LOA. Most of the participants 166 (37.1%) had 4–5 mm LOA. The 6–8 mm LOA was present in 92 (20.5%) and 9–11 mm LOA was present only in 8 (1.8%) participants.
| Discussion|| |
The present study of oral health state and their treatment rations among the industrial employees of GEI ranging in strata from 18 to 35, 36–55, and >56 years of age group. Upper-middle, lower-middle, and upper-lower class of socioeconomic status were the predominant classes among the industrial employees. Demographically industrial employees were abundantly in 36–55 years of age group and appear under lower-middle class of socioeconomic status.
In this study, 61.2% employees had gingival bleeding, whereas 38.8% employees had healthy gums, and healthy gums present in younger age group. Our results are in accordance with the study conducted by Vanishree et al. In this study, healthy periodontium was seen in younger age groups (15–24 years and 25–34 years), but the overall prevalence of gingival and periodontal diseases was very high. Only 0.47% workers had healthy periodontium, 16.26–83.25% had gingival and periodontal disease, respectively.
Gingival bleeding prevalence was less in a study conducted by Khurana et al. and De Macedo et al., in which 40.4%–51.3% had gingival bleeding, respectively.
In this study, <50% employees had periodontal problems. Nearly 51.8% employees had healthy gums, and 48.2% had periodontal problems, whereas a study conducted by Singh et al. found 68.2% workers, Rai et al. found that 92.45% workers, and Sanadhya et al. found 96.4% workers had periodontal problems, and these results illustrated very high prevalence of periodontal disease as compared with our study.
When we compare periodontal prevalence according to the socioeconomic status, the prevalence was high among lower-middle class of socioeconomic status. Periodontal prevalence among lower-middle class was 28.1%.
In this study, mean number of teeth affected by shallow and deep pocket was 2.25 ± 2.81 and 0.66 ± 1.49, whereas a study conducted by Sanadhya et al., mean number of sextants affected by shallow and deep pocket were 2.11 ± 0.51 and 0.28 ± 0.08, respectively, and this was lesser as compared to our study.
In this study, 182 (40.6%) employees had no LOA, 166 (37.1%) had LOA score 1, 92 (20.5%) had LOA score 2, and 8 (1.8%) had LOA score 3. Maximum number of employees had LOA score 1 and LOA was more in 36–55 year age group. Totally 59.3% employees had LOA in this study, whereas a study conducted by Sood et al. and Singh et al. found that 280 (44.7%) and 149 (17.5%) workers had LOA and these studies showed fewer subjects reported with LOA as compared to our study.
In this study, LOA was higher among 36–55 year age group and our results are in accordance with the study conducted by Nagarajappa R et al. They also found that LOA was more in 31–40 year age group.
According to this study, gingival bleeding prevalence and periodontal disease prevalence was mediocre of the ground level. This may be because of continuous exposure to welding fumes. A study conducted by Wulf B, Seefeld G  revealed that the incidence of periodontal disease was significantly greater in welders. The investigator speculated that particles in welding emissions could adhere to the teeth and gums, influence the quantity and quality of dental plaque.
| Conclusion|| |
This study conveys an implication of periodontal health state of industrial recruits. It showed that periodontal health of industrial employees was not to the ground stage of expectations. Therefore, it entails focusing on these peril groups and emphasis on those factors which contribute in pitiable oral health status. Thus, efforts are needed to be taken for provision and utilization of more promotive, preventive, and curative dental services to meet the unmet dental necessities of industrial employees.
The authors would like to express gratitude to for his CEO of GEI, industry, and HR manager for their enormous support and last but not the least all employees who had contributed to this study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]