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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 50

Unknown to a rare known: A case report of apical actinomycosis

Department of Paediatrics, Al-Kindy College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq

Date of Web Publication30-Mar-2017

Correspondence Address:
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
P.O. Box: 55302, Baghdad Post Office, Baghdad
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0976-433X.203490

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How to cite this article:
Al-Mendalawi MD. Unknown to a rare known: A case report of apical actinomycosis. SRM J Res Dent Sci 2017;8:50

How to cite this URL:
Al-Mendalawi MD. Unknown to a rare known: A case report of apical actinomycosis. SRM J Res Dent Sci [serial online] 2017 [cited 2022 Oct 3];8:50. Available from:


I have two comments on the interesting case report by Suhasini et al. on apical actinomycosis (AA).[1]

First, it is obvious that infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with the frequent presentation of otherwise rare opportunistic infections. Almost all HIV-infected patients will contract various forms of oral diseases, and they might be the first sign of an HIV infection or of its progression.[2] Interestingly, despite the impairments of cellular and humoral immunity that accompanies HIV infection, the prevalence of actinomycosis in the HIV-infected population has remained low.[3] In particular, oral actinomycosis associated with HIV infection has been rarely reported.[4] In India, HIV infection is still a major health problem, and the current national prevalence is about 0.26% compared with a global average of 0.2%.[5] I presume that underlying HIV infection should be seriously considered in the studied patient with AA and, hence, CD4 count and viral overload estimations were envisaged. If the aforementioned estimations were performed and they revealed HIV infection, the case in question could be considered a novel case report of HIV-associated AA as such association has not been reported in the literature so far.

Second, the case in question truly triggers the need for close cooperation between dentists and physicians in evaluating patients with oral lesions, and they should be familiar with the most frequently occurring oral manifestations of systemic diseases, including HIV infection.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Suhasini K, Madhusudhana K, Suneelkumar C, Lavanya A. Unknown to a rare known: A case report of apical actinomycosis. SRM J Res Dent Sci 2016;7:248-51.  Back to cited text no. 1
  [Full text]  
Steinsvoll S, Herlofson BB. Oral manifestations in HIV infection. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2006;126:1218-21.  Back to cited text no. 2
Chaudhry SI, Greenspan JS. Actinomycosis in HIV infection: A review of a rare complication. Int J STD AIDS 2000;11:349-55.  Back to cited text no. 3
Spadari F, Tartaglia GM, Spadari E, Fazio N. Oral actinomycosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Int J STD AIDS 1998;9:424-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
Paranjape RS, Challacombe SJ. HIV/AIDS in India: An overview of the Indian epidemic. Oral Dis 2016;22 Suppl 1:10-4.  Back to cited text no. 5


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